Don Quixote. Spain. Crisis of the Second Republic. Analysis. Mythology. Velázquez. Poetic Innovations. Cuando me paro … Analysis. The Second Republic (1931-1936) The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. Second Spanish Republic. Conversos and Moriscos: Tyranny of Food. Law. La niña bonita (the pretty girl) as the Second Republic was popularly called, came clothed with a new tricolour flag, the royalist national anthem was replaced by the old liberal Himno de Riego (“Hymn of Riego”) and many streets and squares were renamed. The Second Spanish Republic was a reaction to the discrediting of dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera, who came to power by promising stability and financial gain. I still remember that day, April 14th of 1931, when the Second Republic was declared, in substitution of the Monarchy of Alfonso XIII. Agrarian reform, 2. Religion. The Second Republic (1931-1936) 1933 Elections. Barton, Simon A History of Spain 2nd ed. Spain. Definition and Characteristics. 20th Century. The Second Republic was the democratic political regime that existed in Spain from 1931 until the end of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) when Francisco Franco would take control of the country, establishing a dictatorship that would last for forty years. Córdoba and Culture. Stanley Payne … El Escorial. Stanley Payne … Overview. Act I. Second Spanish Republic 1931-36. Alfonso XIII. The military did not carry the long, historical baggage of church, land and regional autonomy, but the power it wielded since the 19th century now made it one of the most formidable enemy of change. Summary Act I. Lorca: The House of Bernarda Alba. Ziryab (789-857) and Spanish Food, Fashion and Etiquette. The Upstairs World of Calisto and Melibea. Monarchists were conservative and Catholics and did not want to reform Spain. Agrarian Reform June 1931-November 1933. Romanesque in Aragón, Navarra, Castile-León, Renaissance Architecture in 16th-Century Spain. The Second Republic in 1931 brought enormous hopes for Spanish workers and peasants, and in social terms some advances were made, especially for women. The First Spanish Republic lasted from February 1873 to December 1874, and the Second Spanish Republic lasted from April 1931 to April 1939. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. The Great Mosque of Córdoba. 4º ESO - The 2nd Republic and the Civil War (1931-1936) The Second Republic (1931-1936) The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. What did happen on June 28 was an overwhelming victory for a wide-ranging Republican-Socialist coalition. Part II (1615). Spanish Ballads. Preston, Paul A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War London 1996 About Us Introduction and Status Symbol. Characteristics. 2016. …politician and leader during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–36). The birth of Spain’s Second Republic was greeted enthusiastically following the decision of both the dictator. The significance of Spain’s Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. In the south were the vast private estates or latifundia worked by landless labourers. The history of the Second Republic falls into four distinct phases: (1) the Provisional Government, which lasted until the religious issue forced its resignation in October 1931, (2) the governments of the Left Republicans and Socialists, which ruled from October 1931 and were defeated in the elections of November 1933, (3) the conservative government of the Radical Republicans and the … Part I (1605). It was a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion. Classification. Apr 22, 1931. The Left Reacts. There was a sweeping assault on the Church including a constitutional declaration that that the state recognised no official religion and that education (run mainly by the church) was to become secular. The Second Spanish Republic (Spanish: Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.. History. Although members of the proletariat which had much to gain from proposed agrarian and workers’ reforms, the Anarchists sought to destabilise the very government that sought to improve the lot of the workers. The significance of Spain’s Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Copyright © 2009 Spain Then and Now. The 1931 Constitution granted suffrage to women. Las Hilanderas or The Fable of Arachne. Garcilaso de la Vega 1498?-1536. Both of these ideological extremes –fascism and communism– were factors that increasingly entered the political narrative of the Second Republic and were major components of the Civil War itself. Tirso de Molina. Visigoths and Unity: Monarchy. History of the Jews in Spain.14th-Century. Summary. Characters: Pepe el Romano. In 1932, laws on divorce and civil marriage were passed. Media in category "Coins of the Second Spanish Republic" The following 40 files are in this category, out of 40 total. A Spanish Tragedy. … For a complete list of the kings and queens regnant of Spain, see below. The Church June 1931-November 1933. The commander of the army engaged in Asturias was the future dictator, General Francisco Franco. Golden Age Religious Painting and Flemish Influence. Spain - Spain - Government and society: From 1833 until 1939 Spain almost continually had a parliamentary system with a written constitution. Clearly no single party could hope to form a government. There were a number of areas where it was felt reform were needed: Agriculture; Spain was essentially an agricultural country. Córdoba’s Mosque: Muslim Calligraphy and Christian Imagery. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Scenes 1 to 4. Introduction and Language. History of Spain. In the ensuing civil unrest, violence in the form of assassination, revolutionary general strikes, and mob action… Introduction. Poema de Mío Cid: Is the Cid Spain’s Hero? The democratic project that the Republic was based on aroused great hopes in the nation. Poema or Cantar de Mío Cid (Song of the Cid). Stanley Payne. What Does the Term Mean? Madrid, Spain; 25/07/2020.- Hundreds of protesters march the streets of central Madrid to protest the 'corrupt' Spanish monarchy to the cry of 'People's Republic' Under the slogan 'Before the corrupt monarchy and the miseries of the system, people's republic,' the demonstration called by the 25S Coordinator.Flags of the Second Spanish Republic waved. The aims of the left were to modernise Spain, what happened was a return to the country’s past when, under the banner of the crusading dictator, Phillips, William D Jr. and Phillips, Carla R. Image of the Republican flag: By SanchoPanzaXXI – Own work, GFDL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3557152. On the day that Alfonso departed, Spain’s Second Republic was proclaimed. Velázquez. Romances of Chivalry. The House of Bernarda Alba. The Seville Years. The right responded that “if the revolution wants war, it shall have war” (Carr Spanish Tragedy, 47). The Second Republic was proclaimed during a period of worldwide economic depression. Gaudí’s El Capricho. New elections were called for February 1936. Italy. Burgo de O to Sos del Rey, Travel 2013. The House of Bernarda Alba: The House. Resistance to these radical reforms was immediate and defended with equal passion. The Second Spanish Republic played an important role in the country’s history. Second Spanish Republicball was born/established on April 14th, 1931 after the military dictatorship that ruled Spain prior was overthrown in 1930. In Spain: The Second Republic. Guzman de Alfarache. Painting in Spain’s Golden Age. Don Quixote. Velázquez’s Early Paintings. Casanova, Julian and Andres, Carlos Gil Twentieth-Century Spain: A History Cambridge 2014 [citation needed] Economic hardships led to the downfall of General Miguel Primo de Rivera's government on January 29, 1930, in the wake of the 1929 Wall Street Crash. Spain’s Parliamentary Monarchy: Government Selection and Termination According to the 1978 constitution, to form a government, the monarch nominates a candidate for prime minister after a round of consultations with the political parties in parliament. Day 14 Segovia El Burgo de Osma, Travel 2013 Day 15 Berlanga, Baudelio, Gormaz, Travel 2013. The government was, however, unable to curb mob attacks on churches and monasteries, during which priests and nuns were slain. A centralist and traditionalist, and furthermore, landowner and military officer, he preferred to dabble in superficial but expensive projects (e. g. building roads, dams, restoring monuments) rather than attack root causes. Tales of atrocities abounded on both sides, the right emphasising the barbarity of the insurgents, the left berating the brutal treatment and summary executions carried out by the right. History of the Jews in Spain to 13th Century. La Celestina. Spain’s current rules are in part a reaction to the experience of governmental instability during the second republic. Under the monarchical regime currently in force in Spain , there are movements and political parties throughout the entire political spectrum that advocate for a Third Spanish Republic. 10th Century. Restoration 1902-1931. Moves were made to undo much of what had been passed under the left-wing coalition, although the republican system of governance was grudgingly accepted. Travel 2017. University of Wisconsin Press, 1993. Shubert, Adrian A Social History of Modern Spain London 1990 The women’s suffrage movement in Spain was spearheaded by Clara Campoamor, a member of the leftist Partido … Casa Batlló, Park Güell, La Pedrera. Velázquez. In spite of the high hopes, the Republican authorities had to struggle with rising unemployment and poverty. 1599-1623. July 18 1936. Second Spanish Republic. Garcilaso de la Vega. In October 1929, the Wall Street Crash provoked an economic crisis that was felt worldwide with a hardening of international relations and increased tariff protection erected by several countries. Stanley Payne. What did happen on June 28 was an overwhelming victory for a wide-ranging Republican-Socialist coalition. Vision of St. John. Casas Viejas, January 1933. It came on the tails of the crash of 1929 and ended with General Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War. November 1933 – February 1936: Right wing coalition government. Against this opposition, the Republic was tasked with seeking solutions to four pressing issues: 1. General Francisco Franco declared a state of war. History of Spain.18th Century. San Juan de la Peña and Alquézar, Travel 2017. Day 5. The Right Takes Charge. Anarchism had very strong roots in Andalusia and around Barcelona. From Equality to Heroism. The Military. His regime pushed economic nationalism, but any authenticity to his narrative crumbled when the New York stock market crashed in 1929 and the Great Depression began. In the meantime, right wing interests organised themselves and succeeded in winning power in general elections held in November 1933. The Second Republic (1931-1936) Anarchists deported to Equatorial Guinea after an insurrection in Catalonia 1932 24. Gaudí. The country was now divided, and parliamentary rhetoric was increasingly inflammatory. Still, Catalonia/Catalunya did get a statute passed providing for a separate parliament (the Generalitat), shared official status for its language with Castilian, and recognition of its flag and anthem. Those who wanted a republic were anti-clerical and hoped to reform Spanish society. Nearly a century after the inauguration of the Second Republic in April 1931, it is still, along with the civil war that followed, the most passionately contested period of Spanish history. The birth of Spain’s Second Republic was greeted enthusiastically following the decision of both the dictator, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, and the king, Alfonso XIII, to go into exile (in January 1930 and April 1931 respectively). Military reform. New Epic or Novel? The ensuing outrage was used after the 1936 coup by the propaganda of the rebel faction and readily extended itself. Al-Andalus: 10th Century. Language such as “the left must of necessity move to civil war. There were numerous factors, both external and internal that worked against, A further destabilising issue was the successful Russian communist revolution of 1917, which gave support to the potential of left-wing, egalitarian ideas. He also prevented liberal reforms being introduced before the First World War. History, Content, Significance. Velázquez’s Early Years and Seville, 1599-1623. A further destabilising issue was the successful Russian communist revolution of 1917, which gave support to the potential of left-wing, egalitarian ideas. Madrid.1631-60. Prelude to Civil War. Image of the Republican flag: By SanchoPanzaXXI – Own work, GFDL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3557152. Regional autonomy, principally Catalan, 3. The aims of the left were to modernise Spain, what happened was a return to the country’s past when, under the banner of the crusading dictator, General Franco, Spain reverted to its Catholic heritage, its territorial unity and conservative values. Both of these ideological extremes –fascism and communism– were factors that increasingly entered the political narrative of the Second Republic and were major components of the, All of these issues had been quashed during the dictatorship of General, In addition to the challenges outlined above, the Second Republic faced a surprising obstacle from a powerful group we might initially think supportive of the new political system: the, Briefly, the left-wing, socialist dominated first government of the Second Republic did succeed in effecting a number of reforms against strong even violent opposition. Quevedo. The history of the Second Republic falls into four distinct phases: (1) the Provisional Government, which lasted until the religious issue forced its resignation in October 1931, (2) the governments of the Left Republicans and Socialists, which ruled from October 1931 and were… Read More; support of anticlericalism By the summer of 1933, the country was in a state of disorder. The Second Spanish Republic 1931-39: Historical Overview. Spanish Ballads. Day 17 Sos and Leyre Monastery, Travel 2013 Day 18. The Second Republic was the democratic political regime that existed in Spain from 1931 until the end of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) when Francisco Franco would take control of the country, establishing a dictatorship that would last for forty years. Second Spanish Republic. And don’t let the right have any illusions that this is an idle threat. Spain’s transition to democracy in the turn of the 1930’s decade was a break from the authoritarian direction many European states were heading at that time. Spain was therefore one of the first among South European states to enfranchise women. Carr, Raymond  Spain 1808-1939 Oxford 1966 Regional Autonomy. Early 15th-Century. Velázquez. Nov1933-Feb1936. It was a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion. History of the Jews in Spain. Second Republic. Garcilaso de la Vega. Eighteen governments in just five years underline the fragility of a system that could find no road to compromise. The right side were not happy as they felt that they it was a threat to Spains overall level of power. Military Reform June 1931-November 1933. Day 7. Summary. Mercury. The Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to the Civil War 1931-1936: Amazon.it: Tardio, Manuel Alvarez, Reguillo, Fernando Del Rey, Rider, Nick: Libri in altre lingue The left was divided as to how to respond to right wing resistance, Anarchist violence, and peasant dissatisfaction with a lack of progress to their demands. February 1936 – July 17 1936: Left wing coalition government. In December of 1931, a new constitution was adopted and Spain was now a new modern liberal republic. Generation of 1898. The House of Bernarda Alba. The Second Republic was an attempt to build a “modern” Spain and lasted until April 1st 1939 when the successful military rebellion led by General Francisco Franco brought to an end the Spanish Civil War. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Download this stock image: Proclamation of the second Republic in Spain, 1931 - CPJ9HG from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Bodegones and Daily Life. Burlador de Sevilla. Mars. Travel 2017. 1 peseta, 1937.jpg 1,504 × 770; 445 KB. Characters: La Poncia. The second republic, proclaimed after the fall of the monarchy in 1931, was at first dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, among them Niceto Alcalá Zamora, Francisco Largo Caballero, and Manuel Azaña. Góngora. All of these issues had been quashed during the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera whose priorities were la Patria (the Fatherland), Church and King. Hero or Religious Extremist? Alfonso XIII became increasingly autocratic and in 1909 was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona. There was another republic of Spain between 1873-1874 but that failed too. It stood for democracy, progress and universal rights, a separation of Church and State. Alemán. The subsequent shortage of funds, necessary for the reforms projected by left leaning politicians in Spain, hampered such initiatives. The legislation adopted resembled that of France. The reason for this is not simply that the Anarchists were anti-government. International Relations. Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. El Buscón. Las Meninas. The history of the Second Republic falls into four distinct phases: (1) the Provisional Government, which lasted until the religious issue forced its resignation in October 1931, (2) the governments of the Left Republicans and Socialists, which ruled from October 1931 and were…, …of 1931 that established the Second Republic brought to power an anticlerical government. General Miguel Primo de Rivera: The Rise of a Dictator. • Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. Second Spanish Republic. The Second Republic in 1931 brought enormous hopes for Spanish workers and peasants, and in social terms some advances were made, especially for women. The Spanish Republic and commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the previous and short-lived First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), was the democratic republican administration that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. Golden Age Art: Religion, Politics, Art in the 16th Century. In addition to the challenges outlined above, the Second Republic faced a surprising obstacle from a powerful group we might initially think supportive of the new political system: the Anarchists. Transition to Provisional Government. Spanish Civil War: An Overview of the Causes. History of the Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain. Cantigas de amigo. Plateresque Style in Spain’s Golden Age Architecture. April – June 1931: Provisional government. San Juan de la Cruz . Sources: ... Spain 50 céntimos 1937 (3-4) with circle of round dots on reverse.JPG 1,192 × 824; 146 KB. Angel Ganivet (1865-1898). New Views on the Second Republic in Spain - Volume 17 - George Esenwein Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. Travel 2013. Arab and Moorish Influence on Spanish Food. The Catholic Church and the Spanish Civil War. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Second-Republic-Spanish-history. Overview. Counterrevolutionaries led by General…. Alfonso X el Sabio and the Cantigas de Sta. This means that Spain can survive only as Dictatorship or Monarchy? Spain's military did not oppose the establishment of the country's Second Republic in April 1931, although there were reservations. Madrid. 1931-33. Agrarian reform immediately came up against entrenched, powerful landed interests, Catalan autonomy was anathema to centralist Castile and the military, the Church had long enjoyed wide-ranging privileges which it saw threatened, and the military, especially the army, objected to reforms pushed by politicians. Spanish Food. Spanish exports, notably citrus fruits, olive oil and steel were especially affected. …minister, and president of the Second Republic (1931–36), whose attempts to moderate the policies of the various factions led eventually to his deposition and exile. The drums of war were beating, and sadly, verbal violence was soon translated into action. A “new dawn” was heralded as Spaniards proudly contemplated the bloodless transformation overnight of their country from Monarchy to Republic. Lorca. For a general overview of the Second Republic, click here.. After the resignation of the dictator, Miguel Primo de Rivera, on January 26, 1930, King Alfonso XIII, found himself under increasing pressure from republican sympathisers, prominent intellectuals, and monarchists critical of his accommodation with Primo’s dictatorship. Second Spanish Republic 1931-36. The Civil Guard, Spain’s paramilitary constabulary and largest police force until recent times, played an influential role in many of the pivotal events of the Second Republic (1931-1939), a fact recognized by both historians and contemporary protagonists of otherwise diverse views. Velázquez. His lack of economic judgement also left the country with a significant budget deficit, leaving the Republic shackled from the outset. Lorca. An Authoritarian’s Nightmare. Unions and Forces of Order. Garcilaso de la Vega. Spain. Following the Provisional Government between April and December 1931, the 1931 Constitution effectively established the Republic. Overview (2). International Context. The Immaculate Conception. The Second Republic (1931-1936) 1933 Elections. The flag of the Second Spanish Republic was a tricolour red-yellow-purple in horizontal stripes of the same dimension, unlike the traditional red-yellow-red Spanish flag. Tirso de Molina. The democratic project that the Republic was based on aroused great hopes in the nation. La Mezquita. Origins. Externally the Second Republic had little control over events. Guzmán de Alfarache. María. Vulcan. The second republic, proclaimed after the fall of the monarchy in 1931, was at first dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, among them Niceto Alcalá Zamora, Francisco Largo Caballero, and Manuel Azaña. The Catholic Church after the Spanish Civil War. Outbreaks of violence continued, the most notorious being the rebellion by striking miners in Asturias in October 1934. See what the reforms were and how the military reacted. The constitution of The Second Spanish Republic was groundbreaking in the history of Spain and changed the face of the country. For the Anarchists, the socialists were traitors, and their enmity to the Republic was channelled into violent strikes and armed insurrections that were major destabilising factors in undermining the social reforms proposed by the left wing. They began a broad-ranging Alfonso (sic) ... an Exile!! Characters: Bernarda’s Daughters. Nov 1933-Feb 1936. Clearly no single party could hope to form a government. Al-Andalus. [citation needed] Alfonso XIII found himself disdained and sidelined by the Spanish people. History of Spain.18th Century. Spain. Spain’s first democratic administration for nearly sixty years was established in 1931 and was cheered by the population, following fairly disastrous policies of the monarchy. Catalonia History: 11th and 12th Centuries. Hopes in the Second Republic. ON April 14 we celebrated the 89th anniversary of the second Spanish republic. The following is a summary showing a pendulum of events that eventually swung out of control. Don Quixote and the Real World. Guzmán de Alfarache. The Second Spanish Republic. When the Second Republic was proclaimed on April 14,1931, it started off with a great deal of optimism. The Second Republic (1931-1936) generated important legislative work and women were granted many new rights of which they had been hitherto deprived. Among many influential Catholics in Spain, mainly composed of conservative traditionalists and people belonging to monarchist groups, the religious persecution was squarely blamed on the Republic. The Second Spanish Republic lasted from 14th April 1931 to 18th July 1936 (military uprising) or 1st April 1939 (Republican defeat). Internally the Second Republic was not without committed enemies: e. g. dyed-in-the-wool monarchists, bourgeoisie and aristocratic landowners, members of the church hierarchy, conservative peasants (especially in the north), and military hardliners. Lorca. The Civil War lasted until April 1 1939. 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